πŸ”Default Ed25519 transactions

Solana compatible accounts

Create and send default transaction

Here we propose the example of simple transaction from default account(ed25519) to any other account

Also, read more about our default ed25519 accounts in MasteringKlyntar

Generate keypair

import {crypto} from 'web1337';

let mnemonic = "" // mnemonic should be empty in case you generate a new pair

let mnemonicPassword = "" // set the password for your mnemonic

let bip44Path = [44,7331,0,0] // 7331 is KLY ID and the next values - derivation path

let keypair = await crypto.ed25519.generateDefaultEd25519Keypair(mnemonic,mnemonicPassword,bip44Path);

console.log(keypair);

Output:

{
  mnemonic: 'job october hold grape novel horror stay major pledge bonus energy fringe',
  bip44Path: "m/44'/7331'/0'/0'",
  pub: 'GbjtpGjt1G9pJe667cQcBswRMGq9XogmrGEGUj94enuc',
  prv: 'MC4CAQAwBQYDK2VwBCIEIMOJVCiaURXxlZrkXe+fa2r061eqdOQAxux1/gxDGRi9'
}

Tricks with BIP-44

By default, you get the new mnemonic and key pair with m/44'/7331'/0'/0' path. But, to generate many accounts from a single seed do this:

  • Get the mnemonic from the first generation

  • Change the path to 1,2,3... to build the HD chain of accounts

For example:

Get the first keypair in future chain:

import {crypto} from 'web1337';


const mnemonic = null;

const bip44Path = null;

const mnemoPassword = 'HelloKlyntar';


let keypair = await crypto.ed25519.generateDefaultEd25519Keypair(mnemonic,bip44Path,mnemoPassword);

console.log(keypair);

Output:

{
  mnemonic: 'final lottery shell supply lottery doll drive flavor awesome tool matter argue',
  bip44Path: "m/44'/7331'/0'/0'",
  pub: '5oFCA179BeABvcUx921adoU4N9mXGGGS6DaoAwcTgFzs',
  prv: 'MC4CAQAwBQYDK2VwBCIEIB5ghaD82U+RixQ9KuGtFwADQu1FMVl4dTWs1zd094Q2'
}

For the first pair in future chain of accounts we don't set the mnemonic and BIP-44 path. Mnemonic will be randomly generated and path will be m/44'/7331'/0'/0'. The last parameter is the password that will be used to get the seed from your mnemonic.

That's why - choose the password with the high entropy, ommiting typical passwords from well known wordlists to make brute force impossible. Also, DON'T SHARE YOUR MNEMONIC PHRASE - YOU WILL LOST CONTROL OF YOUR ACCOUNT.

Now, to build the chain, use this snippet:

import {crypto} from 'web1337';


const firstKeypairInChain = {
    mnemonic: 'final lottery shell supply lottery doll drive flavor awesome tool matter argue',
    bip44Path: "m/44'/7331'/0'/0'",
    pub: '5oFCA179BeABvcUx921adoU4N9mXGGGS6DaoAwcTgFzs',
    prv: 'MC4CAQAwBQYDK2VwBCIEIB5ghaD82U+RixQ9KuGtFwADQu1FMVl4dTWs1zd094Q2'
};

console.log('0 in chain => ',await crypto.ed25519.generateDefaultEd25519Keypair(firstKeypairInChain.mnemonic,firstKeypairInChain.bip44Path,'HelloKlyntar'));
console.log('1 in chain => ',await crypto.ed25519.generateDefaultEd25519Keypair(firstKeypairInChain.mnemonic,"m/44'/7331'/0'/1'",'HelloKlyntar'));
console.log('2 in chain => ',await crypto.ed25519.generateDefaultEd25519Keypair(firstKeypairInChain.mnemonic,"m/44'/7331'/0'/2'",'HelloKlyntar'));

Output:

0 in chain =>  {
  mnemonic: 'final lottery shell supply lottery doll drive flavor awesome tool matter argue',
  bip44Path: "m/44'/7331'/0'/0'",
  pub: '5oFCA179BeABvcUx921adoU4N9mXGGGS6DaoAwcTgFzs',
  prv: 'MC4CAQAwBQYDK2VwBCIEIB5ghaD82U+RixQ9KuGtFwADQu1FMVl4dTWs1zd094Q2'
}
1 in chain =>  {
  mnemonic: 'final lottery shell supply lottery doll drive flavor awesome tool matter argue',
  bip44Path: "m/44'/7331'/0'/1'",
  pub: '6GSUoBos7P3ZZLeq5jjH4AJ8vvVMJQHqGVh1ZsH8FeGF',
  prv: 'MC4CAQAwBQYDK2VwBCIEILp+iBVOXkbVy4J3Dbw8w22bJ+TNXHyRmvYIeQcBHl+f'
}
2 in chain =>  {
  mnemonic: 'final lottery shell supply lottery doll drive flavor awesome tool matter argue',
  bip44Path: "m/44'/7331'/0'/2'",
  pub: '8DZ92AyXjfyRYhWJB1rxHy38bYwtm1bW6xz3sFkLAkUU',
  prv: 'MC4CAQAwBQYDK2VwBCIEIJXTGksc61wuV1rB2YjCkgCsp0RPoN8pJ1slCmQL0igU'
}

Ed25519 => Ed25519 transaction

Example of simplest transaction - from default account to default account

// Get your own keys using:
// Method 0(via Web1337) - await crypto.ed25519.generateDefaultEd25519Keypair()
// Method 1(via Apollo CLI) - apollo keygen

const myKeyPair = {

    mnemonic: 'south badge state hedgehog carpet aerobic float million enforce opinion hungry race',
    bip44Path: "m/44'/7331'/0'/0'",
    pub: '2VEzwUdvSRuv1k2JaAEaMiL7LLNDTUf9bXSapqccCcSb',
    prv: 'MC4CAQAwBQYDK2VwBCIEIDEf/4H5iiY3ebAfWsFIFkeZrB8HpcvBYK5zjEe9/8ga'
      
};


const shardID = '7GPupbq1vtKUgaqVeHiDbEJcxS7sSjwPnbht4eRaDBAEJv8ZKHNCSu2Am3CuWnHjta';

const recipient = 'nXSYHp74u88zKPiRi7t22nv4WCBHXUBpGrVw3V93f2s';

const from = myKeyPair.pub;

const myPrivateKey = myKeyPair.prv;

const nonce = 0;

const fee = 1;

const amountInKLY = 13.37;


let signedTx = await web1337.createDefaultTransaction(shardID,from,myPrivateKey,nonce,recipient,fee,amountInKLY);

console.log(signedTx);

Result(see the structure)

{
  v: 0,
  creator: '2VEzwUdvSRuv1k2JaAEaMiL7LLNDTUf9bXSapqccCcSb',
  type: 'TX',
  nonce: 0,
  fee: 1,
  payload: {
    type: 'D',
    to: 'nXSYHp74u88zKPiRi7t22nv4WCBHXUBpGrVw3V93f2s',
    amount: 13.37
  },
  sig: '5AGkLlK3knzYZeZwjHKPzlX25lPMd7nU+rR5XG9RZa3sDpYrYpfnzqecm5nNONnl5wDcxmjOkKMbO7ulAwTFDQ=='
}

Send

let txStatus = await web1337.sendTransaction(signedTx);

console.log(txStatus);

// After that - you can check the tx receipt
// TxID - it's a BLAKE3 hash of transaction signature
let receipt = await web1337.getTransactionReceiptById(web1337.BLAKE3(signedTx.sig));

console.log(receipt);

Result

{
    "blockID": "7GPupbq1vtKUgaqVeHiDbEJcxS7sSjwPnbht4eRaDBAEJv8ZKHNCSu2Am3CuWnHjta:4228",
    "id": 0,
    "isOk": true
}

where:

  • blockID - the block where tx is

  • id - index of this tx in block

  • isOk - was this tx successfully processed or not

Ed25519 => BLS(multisig address) transaction

A transfer transaction to a multisig address is literally 1 step more complicated. So, when you are going to send something to a multisig address, depending on whether the recipient's account already exists on the network, you need to specify an additional rev_t field that indicates the reverse threshold.

What is reverse threshold?

Imagine that you and your 3 friends are going to manage some resources together, whether it be native KLY coins or some tokens. For this, it is obviously worth using a multisig address.

Let's assume that you agree that the decision is considered accepted if the voting threshold of 3/4 is reached (3 out of 4 friends agree to spend coins or call some kind of smart contract). So, if the threshold is 3/4, then the reverse threshold in this case will be 1 (because 4-3 = 1).

Here are some examples for other cases:

  • Reverse threshold = 3 for a situation where you need 7/10 agreements

  • Reverse threshold = 2 for a situation where you need 3/5 agreements

And so on

The reverse threshold was introduced in response to the ability of BLS signatures and public keys to aggregation. Since the situation is often such that

T>Tβˆ’NT > T-N

where:

  • N is the number of sides of the multi-signature

  • T is the threshold

and when checking the signature we need to know whether the threshold has been reached, then we need to do this:

  • Present the consenting parties as an aggregated public key and an aggregated BLS signature

  • In a separate array, present the public BLS keys of those who do not agree with the decision (or could not vote for some reason)

Going back to the 4 friends example, if we have a threshold of 3/4, then it makes more sense to aggregate 3 signatures and 3 public keys into 1 and separately present 1 public key of the one who disagrees than to provide 3 separate keys and signatures from 4.

Let's look at a specific example

You and 3 your friends generate multisig pairs(public + private key) locally. Let's do it with Web1337:

import {bls} from 'web1337'

let privateKey1 = await bls.generatePrivateKey();
let publicKey1 = bls.derivePubKey(privateKey1);

let privateKey2 = await bls.generatePrivateKey();
let publicKey2 = bls.derivePubKey(privateKey2);

let privateKey3 = await bls.generatePrivateKey();
let publicKey3 = bls.derivePubKey(privateKey3);

let privateKey4 = await bls.generatePrivateKey();
let publicKey4 = bls.derivePubKey(privateKey4);


console.log(`Pair 1 => ${privateKey1} : ${publicKey1}`);
console.log(`Pair 2 => ${privateKey2} : ${publicKey2}`);
console.log(`Pair 3 => ${privateKey3} : ${publicKey3}`);
console.log(`Pair 4 => ${privateKey4} : ${publicKey4}`);

Output:

Pair 1 => 6bcdb86cd8f9d24e9fe934905431de5c224499af8788bf12cae8597f0af4cb23 : 6Pz5B3xLQKDxtnESqk3tWnsd4kwkVYLNsvgKJy31HssK3eGSy7Tvratk5pZNFW5z8S
Pair 2 => e5ca94e2c60cbb3ca9d5f9c233a99f01e3250ef62bd48fbc09caf25ae70040b5 : 5uj1Sgrvo9mwF6v8Z3Kxe4arQcu53Q2z9QBYsRPWCdo972jBeL8hD3Kmo4So3dSLt5
Pair 3 => ead8698b5ef285e6019e22e54dfe2c592c020946e803df8c6e79f98baf849d48 : 6ZmLf52hp5FgCxuaNJ6Jmi2M7FSJTr115WRMuV1yCvEihepnEKJBhgopDMpUKLpe2F
Pair 4 => 414230b72c59ac8db6ec47b629607057edaa5c7c553d44b4b9fd1c0090141c5a : 61tPxmio9Y21GtkiyYG3qTkreKfqm6ktk7MVk2hxqiXVURXxM6qNb9vPfvPPbhpMDn

Now, you need to aggregate your 4 public keys to get the root public key and receive payments for collective usage.

let publicKey1 = '6Pz5B3xLQKDxtnESqk3tWnsd4kwkVYLNsvgKJy31HssK3eGSy7Tvratk5pZNFW5z8S';
let privateKey1 = '6bcdb86cd8f9d24e9fe934905431de5c224499af8788bf12cae8597f0af4cb23';

let publicKey2 = '5uj1Sgrvo9mwF6v8Z3Kxe4arQcu53Q2z9QBYsRPWCdo972jBeL8hD3Kmo4So3dSLt5';
let privateKey2 = 'e5ca94e2c60cbb3ca9d5f9c233a99f01e3250ef62bd48fbc09caf25ae70040b5';

let publicKey3 = '6ZmLf52hp5FgCxuaNJ6Jmi2M7FSJTr115WRMuV1yCvEihepnEKJBhgopDMpUKLpe2F';
let privateKey3 = 'ead8698b5ef285e6019e22e54dfe2c592c020946e803df8c6e79f98baf849d48';

let publicKey4 = '61tPxmio9Y21GtkiyYG3qTkreKfqm6ktk7MVk2hxqiXVURXxM6qNb9vPfvPPbhpMDn';
let privateKey4 = '414230b72c59ac8db6ec47b629607057edaa5c7c553d44b4b9fd1c0090141c5a';


let rootPubKey = bls.aggregatePublicKeys([publicKey1,publicKey2,publicKey3,publicKey4]);

console.log('RootPubKey =>',rootPubKey);

Output:

RootPubKey => 68Bpgi6MbRX9q3T9h8DDWomPGu85HqWSfPMT23r6g29xyn1dN7qfquwxpfFNMdMpU1

Now you can accept payments for this address.

From sender's point of view

When you need to send something to multisig account you need to set the reverse threshold if account still not exists or use `rev_t` property of already existed account

So, if account 68Bpgi6MbRX9q3T9h8DDWomPGu85HqWSfPMT23r6g29xyn1dN7qfquwxpfFNMdMpU1 still not in state - use this template:

const myKeyPair = {

    mnemonic: 'south badge state hedgehog carpet aerobic float million enforce opinion hungry race',
    bip44Path: "m/44'/7331'/0'/0'",
    pub: '2VEzwUdvSRuv1k2JaAEaMiL7LLNDTUf9bXSapqccCcSb',
    prv: 'MC4CAQAwBQYDK2VwBCIEIDEf/4H5iiY3ebAfWsFIFkeZrB8HpcvBYK5zjEe9/8ga'
      
};


const shardID = '7GPupbq1vtKUgaqVeHiDbEJcxS7sSjwPnbht4eRaDBAEJv8ZKHNCSu2Am3CuWnHjta';

const recipient = '68Bpgi6MbRX9q3T9h8DDWomPGu85HqWSfPMT23r6g29xyn1dN7qfquwxpfFNMdMpU1';

const from = myKeyPair.pub;

const myPrivateKey = myKeyPair.prv;

const nonce = 0;

const fee = 1;

const amountInKLY = 13.37;

// In our example with 4 friends, since we want 3/4 agreements
// to use account, the reverse threshold will be 4-3=1
// Use the formula rev_t = N-T where N - number of sides, T-threshold
const reverseThreshold = 1;

let signedTx = await web1337.createDefaultTransaction(shardID,from,myPrivateKey,nonce,recipient,fee,amountInKLY,reverseThreshold);

console.log(signedTx);

Result:

{
  v: 0,
  creator: '2VEzwUdvSRuv1k2JaAEaMiL7LLNDTUf9bXSapqccCcSb',
  type: 'TX',
  nonce: 0,
  fee: 1,
  payload: {
    type: 'D',
    to: '68Bpgi6MbRX9q3T9h8DDWomPGu85HqWSfPMT23r6g29xyn1dN7qfquwxpfFNMdMpU1',
    amount: 13.37,
    rev_t: 1
  },
  sig: 'VxL7dEsA+TZRVkj2jn3LBH7D8wuyyseDYkPptEicRHXJ9vIDSfjxYBiz1GCIESIXSWZKlcOx5Ld2hK1FaWsLDw=='
}

After this transaction, new account will be added to state:

"68Bpgi6MbRX9q3T9h8DDWomPGu85HqWSfPMT23r6g29xyn1dN7qfquwxpfFNMdMpU1":{
    "type":"account",
    "balance":13.37,
    "uno":0,
    "nonce":0,
    "rev_t":1,
    "shard":"7GPupbq1vtKUgaqVeHiDbEJcxS7sSjwPnbht4eRaDBAEJv8ZKHNCSu2Am3CuWnHjta"
}

As you see, new multisig account is created and binded to shard where sender sends KLY. Also, the rev_t is set to 1 what means that the number of dissenting sides can be 1.

In case account was already in state - get the rev_t from information about account:

const shardID = '7GPupbq1vtKUgaqVeHiDbEJcxS7sSjwPnbht4eRaDBAEJv8ZKHNCSu2Am3CuWnHjta';

const recipient = '68Bpgi6MbRX9q3T9h8DDWomPGu85HqWSfPMT23r6g29xyn1dN7qfquwxpfFNMdMpU1';

let accountInfo  = await web1337.getFromState(shardID,recipient);

console.log('Account:\n\n',accountInfo);
Account

"68Bpgi6MbRX9q3T9h8DDWomPGu85HqWSfPMT23r6g29xyn1dN7qfquwxpfFNMdMpU1":{
    "type":"account",
    "balance":123456,
    "uno":0,
    "nonce":0,
    "rev_t":1,
    "shard":"7GPupbq1vtKUgaqVeHiDbEJcxS7sSjwPnbht4eRaDBAEJv8ZKHNCSu2Am3CuWnHjta"
}

And then, use the value of rev_t to build the transaction as above

Ed25519 => TBLS(thresholdsig address) transaction

In this transaction you send something to TBLS root public key which controled by group of N members

We'll talk more about TBLS in the next parts. Just now you need to know the 96-byte root public key

const myKeyPair = {

    mnemonic: 'south badge state hedgehog carpet aerobic float million enforce opinion hungry race',
    bip44Path: "m/44'/7331'/0'/0'",
    pub: '2VEzwUdvSRuv1k2JaAEaMiL7LLNDTUf9bXSapqccCcSb',
    prv: 'MC4CAQAwBQYDK2VwBCIEIDEf/4H5iiY3ebAfWsFIFkeZrB8HpcvBYK5zjEe9/8ga'
      
};


const shardID = '7GPupbq1vtKUgaqVeHiDbEJcxS7sSjwPnbht4eRaDBAEJv8ZKHNCSu2Am3CuWnHjta';

const recipientTblsRootPub = 'bedc88644f0deea4c0a77ba687712f494a1af7d8869f09768a0db42284f89d17b7b9225e0c87c2cb5511907dfd5eae3a53d789298721039e833770de29595880';

const from = myKeyPair.pub;

const myPrivateKey = myKeyPair.prv;

const nonce = 0;

const fee = 1;

const amountInKLY = 13.37;


let signedTx = await web1337.createDefaultTransaction(shardID,from,myPrivateKey,nonce,recipientTblsRootPub,fee,amountInKLY);

console.log(signedTx);

Ed25519 => PostQuantum(Dilithium/BLISS) transaction

In this transaction you send your assets to the BLAKE3 hash of public key of some post-quantum signatures schemes like DIlithium or BLISS (we support 2 algorithms)

We'll talk about PQC accounts later. Just now, as a sender you just need to know only the address of recipient - it's 256-bit hash of public key

const myKeyPair = {

    mnemonic: 'south badge state hedgehog carpet aerobic float million enforce opinion hungry race',
    bip44Path: "m/44'/7331'/0'/0'",
    pub: '2VEzwUdvSRuv1k2JaAEaMiL7LLNDTUf9bXSapqccCcSb',
    prv: 'MC4CAQAwBQYDK2VwBCIEIDEf/4H5iiY3ebAfWsFIFkeZrB8HpcvBYK5zjEe9/8ga'
      
};


const shardID = '7GPupbq1vtKUgaqVeHiDbEJcxS7sSjwPnbht4eRaDBAEJv8ZKHNCSu2Am3CuWnHjta';

// It might be Dilithium or BLISS, but doesn't matter for you
const recipientPQC = 'f5091405e28455880fc4191cbda9f1e57f72399e732222d4639294b66d3a5076';

const from = myKeyPair.pub;

const myPrivateKey = myKeyPair.prv;

const nonce = 0;

const fee = 1;

const amountInKLY = 13.37;


let signedTx = await web1337.createDefaultTransaction(shardID,from,myPrivateKey,nonce,recipientTblsRootPub,fee,amountInKLY);

console.log(signedTx);

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